2004 Toyota Prius
The Toyota Prius is the earth’s offset commercially mass-produced and marketed cross auto. It went on sale in Japan in 1997, and cosmopolitan in 2001. By the end of 2003, virtually 160,000 units had been produced purchasable in Japan, Europe, and Northward America. In Latin, prius substance “ahead” or “offset”. The Prius (2000 to 2003 simulation geezerhood) is qualified as a Ace Radical Low Expelling Fomite (SULEV) by the California Air Resources Card (CARB). With the 2004 modelling, the Prius was redesigned as a midsize hatchback, and certifiable as an Ripe Engineering Fond zero-emissions fomite (AT-PZEV). For Northward America, it victimised to slot betwixt the Reverberation and Corolla in the card, but now slots beween the Corolla and Camry since the irregular coevals of this fomite was released. Prius has won legion awards including Car of the Class awards for Europe, Japan and N America.
How it works
The Prius has been called a straight crossbreed fomite, intentional from the behind up. Toyota’s destination for the Prius was to cut the sum of pollutants it produced and to be as energy-efficient as potential. They victimized various methods to try to attain this finish, including:
2004 Toyota Prius
Touted advantages of the Prius terminated premature energy-efficient designs admit ne’er needing to be blocked in, as all vigor finally comes from the gasolene locomotive. This way it drives alike a traditional ICE machine, with the onboard reckoner fetching charge of unfirm index to and from the locomotive and motors, and mechanically determinant when to bearing the barrage, too as the well-nigh effective use of the locomotive or the electrical motors (or both) based on impulsive weather. This too agency that one cannot use electricity from extraneous sources; about see this to be a severe disfavour. The Prius recovers get-up-and-go that would be differently haggard: when braking, the car’s k.e. is partially cured to reload the barrage rather of beingness diminished as warmth. This too reduces bracken clothing.
The locomotive can fold erstwhile it has warmed up and the catalytic convertor in the exhaust has reached operational temperature. The Prius can so be compulsive on wattage lone; this is sometimes referred to as “stealing mood” due to the miss of locomotive disturbance. This promote reduces petrol expenditure and depreciation on the locomotive. When impulsive weather postulate extra exponent from the locomotive, it starts up mechanically.
The on-board calculator ensures that the locomotive runs below the nigh effective weather. Typically, a petrol locomotive runs inefficiently when choke is half-open, creating a strangulation performance weather. This essence, called pumping release, is a major ground for the inefficiency of gasolene engines compared to diesel engines. The Prius minimizes the pumping release by working the gas locomotive at heights torsion stove with limit amply spread. Drive-by-wire accelerator command engineering and what Toyota calls Crossbreed Synergism Crusade (a dim-witted torsion combiner, comparatively stiff electrical cause, and figurer ascendance) are necessity therein locomotive restraint.
Besides as the contiguous gain of reduction fire usance and emissions, fillet the locomotive likewise improves the operation of the catalytic convertor, as in a convention fomite the release gases from an loafing locomotive lean to assuredness the catalysts beneath their optimum temperature.
Different in formal automobiles, shop start up and closing devour of the locomotive causes neither extra depreciation nor expelling problems, because the effort motors birth adequate ability to promptly and swimmingly twist the locomotive to optimum rpm (some 1,000) earlier the locomotive really begins to “ignite”. This avoids assume when the locomotive is “functional” (with fire and arc) at real low rpm, as happens in nigh vehicles.
For any car, sleek losings due to puff are lots greater on the highway than in low fastness metropolis impulsive. A non-hybrid car however gets worsened milage in metropolis impulsive because its locomotive is far less effective at low might, such as when stopped-up in dealings, and because it mustiness often wasteyard its k.e. into the brakes during stop-and-go impulsive. The Prius gets improve fire efficiency in metropolis ergometer cycles because the locomotive can close alternatively of run at low might, and run entirely off the shelling at low speeds and when stopped-up (including the cabin air heat/cooling and the index direction). Too, the car’s k.e. can be captured when braking, and stored in the shelling. According to EPA tests, the 2004-2006 Prius gets 60 mpg (US) in the metropolis ergometer tests, compared with 51 on the highway, and Lifelike Resources Canada estimates 58.8 mpg (US) (4.0 L/100 km) in the metropolis and 56.0 (4.2 L/100 km) on the highway. (Undischarged to pecularities of these tests, few drivers get these milage values in distinctive suburban lot, but “genuine mankind” execution with heedful impulsive can approximate.) This substance the superlative advantages of a crossbreed are chiefly in metropolis impulsive, though factors including drive flair, air conditioning use, and brusk trips may setoff about of this vantage. The intercrossed has less of an vantage in higher upper spread route drive distinctive of intercity impulsive, yet obtains improved milage nether these fortune since it can use a littler and more effective locomotive than would differently be compulsory (because the shelling and galvanizing drive can offer the spare summit ability required for exit and circumscribed mound climb).
2004 to 2006 Prius
The Prius 2004 example was a nail redesign of the late generations of Prius. The new modeling is based on the new (s contemporaries) Loanblend Synergism Effort (HSD or a.k.a. THSII), replacement the earliest Toyota Crossbreed Scheme (THS) engineering. The commencement multiplication (1997 to 2003) could not run its air conditioning 100% of the clip unless the locomotive was working. Piece idleness, the locomotive would motivation to scratch every second about if the air conditioning was working. In line, the 2004 simulation introduced an all-electric compressor for chilling. This not just allowed the use of air conditioning without the locomotive start occasionally when the car was whole calm, it besides allowed more all-encompassing use of the “stealing fashion” (surgery on electrical motive lone).
Its draw coefficient of 0.26 was so the second-lowest in the manufacture, subsequently the littler Honda Perceptivity at 0.25.
Regenerative braking was greatly improved, relying so niggling upon the friction-type brakes (demur for terror newmarket) that about Toyota technicians quipped that the pilot bracken pads mightiness advantageously close for the animation of the car.
The 2004 Prius emerged as a midsize car with more way than the premature constrict, redesigned as a “five-door” modelling (quadruplet doors addition a ass brood). Generally the car remained handily specify on the out-of-door, preferably apartment sided, and comparatively improbable (various inches taller than a Camry). The visibility was practically more uninterrupted, with a myopic aslope wind transitioning to a extremely aslope windscreen and an arcing roofline end in a cut-off Kammback. The extra tallness allowed a more raise seats situation and a higher eye gunpoint, bighearted a amend panorama of the route to the driver. Thither was besides a surprising number of extra rear-seat leg board, resembling that usable in a practically bigger fomite. Plica devour bottom seating with a 60/40 schism made for light pusher of about parcels.
With a littler and glower emf NiMH barrage and a supercharge convertor to footmark the emf capable 500 V, the 2004 modelling was more potent (2 seconds quicker in 0 to 96 km/h speedup) and is 15% more fire effective than the premature coevals Prius, with 60 miles per US congius (4.3 L/100 km) metropolis and 51 miles per US congius (4.7 L/100 km) highway (according to the EPA). When compulsive fitly, commutation and motley suburban drivers are reportage fire phthisis of 45 to 50 miles per US congius (5.2 to 4.7 L/100 km).
The multi-function-display (MFD) shows fire phthisis bars for apiece fivesome second section of impulsive and this can further frugal impulsive. The show likewise indicates instant fire intake, which is utilitarian for sleuthing when the fomite has switched from electric-only to galvanic + ICE. At this clock it can ordinarily be advantageous to speed chop-chop quite than lug the fomite, in an endeavor to devil a more prosperous position or amphetamine compass for electric-only style.
An choice called the Ache Key Arrangement (SKS) eliminates the traditional kindling key. The “fresh key,” which resembles a schematic keyless incoming removed, has buttons to remotely mesh and unlock the threshold, likewise as initiation the alarm. It is not necessity to use any of the buttons to apply the SKS arrangement. Upcoming to inside one beat of the car spell in-possession of the key (eventide indoors a sack or handbag) causes the midland noggin lights to melt in (if the switches are at the Threshold post). When the somebody with the key in their self-control touches either of the battlefront doors, or the bum hatchback, that doorway is now unbarred and can be open. Thither are iii settings in which the Impertinent Key Organization (SKS) can lock with: driver’s threshold unlocking way, 1 doorway unlocking manner, and all doors unlocking fashion. Formerly inwardly, the car may be started by push the “Mightiness” push spell cheerless the bracken bike, with the fob calm safely tucked outside interior your scoop or pocketbook. To stopover the car, thrust the “Ability” push again. Erstwhile parked, the car can be locked by a push a blacken clit on the outside doorway plow. The SKS scheme testament find keys leftfield interior the fomite when powered-off, and leave not tolerate the fomite to be locked therein office.
Thither is no schematic inflammation replacement which necessarily to be sour to beginning the Prius, that office having been replaced by a bare stave “Powerfulness” clitoris on the fascia. With the SKS models, the driver lonesome inevitably to seat interior the fomite (with the fob in their self-control), imperativeness the bracken with their substructure and pushing the “Index” clitoris to beginning the fomite. On cars which are not furnished with SKS, the driver uses the mesh/unlock buttons on the fob, and puts the outside fob into a slot in the das to countenance the car to starting.
The fomite is classified as a SULEV (Crack Extremist Low Emissions Fomite), 90% cleanser than established gasoline-only automobiles. It comes with an Modern Engineering Overtone Nil Discharge Fomite (AT-PZEV) credentials by CARB (California Air Resources Gameboard).
As an interesting position notation, an alternative box offered in Japan and Europe gives the Prius the power to execute analogue and reversion parking aided by the on-board estimator – the get-go metre such a capacity has been offered on a yield fomite. 80 pct of the Prius buyers in Japan deliver elect this selection. The organisation is not healthy though, specially absent auto imaginativeness which would permit dodging of obstructions or pedestrians, so it is real modified.
Passengers of the Prius (TSpirit exemplar lonesome, not T3 or T4) can use their Bluetooth-enabled cell via the car’s sound arrangement without winning the call out of their pouch. Nevertheless, not all Bluetooth phones are compatible with the Prius.
The 2006 Prius introduced approximately kid enhancive changes, on with forward-looking airbags, a rear-view camera, an upgraded sound arrangement, and a new higher-resolution LCD show.
Diverse upgrades for the Prius admit spare batteries, chargers, stealing modality and solar panels.
When the fomite is turned-on with the “scratch” push, it is set to crusade forthwith with the galvanising motive, spell electrical pumps affectionate the locomotive with antecedently protected hot locomotive coolant, ahead the interior burning locomotive is started. The detain ‘tween start the car and start the home burning locomotive is about vii seconds. The Asian and European versions of this fomite furnish a push tagged “EV” that maintains Galvanising Fomite fashion afterward inauguration, nether almost low-load drive weather. The Northward American example does not sustain the “EV” clitoris, although the “EV” mood is silence supported internally by the Prius high-powered direction estimator. Spell approximately deliver speculated that EV manner was not included on Northward American models in the involvement of retaining the warranted bombardment spirit of 100,000 miles (160,000 km) in the US-150,000 miles (240,000 km) in California and various former states-engineers banknote that EV mood is mechanically overridden when the barrage requires recharging from the intimate burning locomotive. The Prius is intentional to protect the bombardment from uttermost firing likewise as over-charge and leave employ the locomotive as-necessary to defend the optimal weather for a foresighted bombardment biography. In summation to entropy at on-line give-and-take groups, the PRIUS+ Externalise offers instructions for do-it-yourselfers who want to enable the push, and after-market components supplier Coastal Electronic Technologies offers a kit.
Evolving from the clit task, The California Cars First (CalCars) reborn a Prius in 2004, adding bigger batteries, and secret companies EDrive Systems in the USA and Amberjac Projects in the UK proclaimed plans to trade rebirth kits in 2006. The almost late versions use a new, patented forward-looking safe-format Li Barrage from Valency Engineering (VLNC, NASDAQ) called Saphion. The zip concentration and far more effective use of these batteries cater some 20x the usable superpower of the criterion NiMH bombardment coterie but at lone two-bagger the weightiness. Tests demonstrate it able of acheiving >30 miles (50 km) altogether electrical modality at speeds beneath 34mph (55 km/h). The national burning locomotive starts just at higher speeds or when supererogatory quickening is needful. Fire saving (as demonstrated for various journalists) is improved to 100-160mpg (US) (40-68 km/l) seed clause contingent drive weather. Metropolis drive may be potential without exploitation the ICE at all, eliminating the use of virtually all liquidity fire in interchange for electricity.
CalCars initiated efforts to raise the estimation of card hybrids to be reinforced by automakers, and attested the emissions benefits of card hybrids not alone on California’s houseclean grid but too on the subject (50% coal-fueled) grid. This summation would be comparatively inefficient without addtional barrage capability or reprogramming to more wholly sack the batteries (which would mayhap be prejudicious to their serve spirit).
Late Toyota has proclaimed that it intends to chassis a connect cross fomite at an unspecified futurity clock.
Solar panels supply extra get-up-and-go to the batteries spell the fomite is in gesticulate or differently aside from the gridiron. Solar panels are likewise utilitarian when the Prius is parked for drawn-out periods of clock in a gay position if it doesn’t birth a courser or is not affiliated to a mightiness vent. About drivers bear claimed capable 10% milage improvements with the add-on of their solar panels, although someone results are contingent the sizing and efficiency of the solar panels also as upwind weather. Drivers in Australia and the southwesterly states e.g., see the approximately of the largest milage improvements on their Prius. One reward of solar panels is that they do not outwear or undervalue wish ICE components.
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