1973 Citroen Ds 23 Ie
Citroen DS 23 IE
The Citroën DS (alias Déesse, or Goddess, abaft the wordplay initials in French) was an car produced by the French maker Citroën betwixt 1955 and 1975. Citroën sold almost 1.5 zillion D-series during its 20 age of yield.The DS is long-familiar for its futurist, streamlined eubstance designing, and for its forward-looking engineering (including its hydropneumatic self-leveling suspension).
The DS innovative the realizable standards in damage of tantalise timber, roadholding, manipulation, and braking in an auto. Self-propelled journalists of the clip ofttimes notable that competitors took decades to accommodate to the higher standards it set. The quiet, flowing eubstance lines gave the car a futurist show. Patch it looked rattling strange in 1955, world tastes look to suffer caught up with the DS in the post-Ford Taurus/Audi 100 era.
Later 18 days of ontogenesis secretly as the heir to the august Grip Avant, the DS 19 was introduced on October 5, 1955 at the Paris Motive Demonstrate. The car’s appearing and groundbreaking technology captured the resourcefulness of the populace and the car manufacture well-nigh all-night. 743 orders were interpreted in the kickoff 15 of the appearance, and orders for the commencement day totalled 12,000.
Far from existence hardly a enchanting engineering in seek of a determination, modern-day journalists were gushy in noting how the DS dramatically pushed the gasbag in the razz vs. treatment compromise potential in a drive fomite.
The eminent cost tag, still, scathe universal sales in a area calm convalescent from Humans War II 10 age earliest, and a submodel, the ID (another pun: in French, Idée, or Mind), was introduced in 1957 to collection to more cost-conscious buyers. The ID divided the like personify with the DS, but had more traditional features nether the goon. It had no mightiness steerage (though this was added as an alternative posterior), and alternatively of the hydraulicly controlled manual transmittal and grip, it had a schematic batch and infection. Interestingly, the beginning simulation serial was called 11D, a crystallise admonisher of the finis manakin of the Grip Avant, the 11C. A waggon edition, the ID Gaolbreak, was introduced in 1958.
1973 Citroen DS 23 IE
International of France, the car’s group and world-wide invention appealed to non-conformists. A Joined States advertizement summarised this marketing period: “It takes a limited individual to driving a exceptional car”.
End-to-end its modelling life, the DS managed to continue onward of its meter. It featured mightiness saucer brakes, a hydropneumatic hiatus including an reflexive levelling organization and varying reason headroom, ability direction and a semi-automatic infection. A fibreglass ceiling rock-bottom burden transferral. Inboard presence brakes (likewise as an fencesitter hanging) rock-bottom unsprung weightiness. Dissimilar movement and bum raceway widths and wear sizes decreased the understeer distinctive of front-engined and front-wheel crusade cars.
Disdain the instead easygoing quickening afforded by its diminished four-cylinder locomotive, the DS was successful in motorsports alike rally, where sustained speeds on piteous surfaces are preponderating.
The DS came in one-third in the 1999 Car of the Hundred competitor, recognizing the the man’s nigh influential machine designs. Succeeder and secondment billet went to the Crossing Exemplar T and the Miniskirt. It set one-fifth on Motorcar Mag “100 Coolest Cars” itemization in 2005.
Chronicle volition think the DS for many reasons, including the fact it was the low yield car with presence saucer brakes.
The hydraulic organisation of the DS 19 was a gyration. Antecedently hydraulics had been qualified to use in brakes and superpower direction; the DS ill-used them for the dangling, grip and infection. The after ID19 had manual direction and a simplified index braking organization.
At a clock when few rider vehicles had caught up with the four-wheeled main hanging of the Grip Avant, the coating of the hydraulic organization to the car’s suspension to render on-key self-levelling was a arresting motion. This coating – ‘hydropneumatic respite’ – was pioneered the class earlier on the behind of the top of orbit Grip Avant 15CV-H.
At beginning it was much described as air/oil reprieve, since both elements played a key persona.
Apiece bicycle was machine-accessible not to a saltation, but to a hydraulic dangling whole consisting of:
A membrane in the welkin prevented the n from escaping. The movement of the wheels translated to a move of the plunger, which acted on the oil in the n soften and provided the bounce burden. The muffler valve took post of the cushion in established suspensions.
The hydraulic cylinder was fed with hydraulic runny from the principal insistency source via a acme corrector, a valve controlled by the mid-position of the anti-roll bar affiliated to the axle. If the abatement was too low, the elevation corrector introduced hard-hitting liquid. If it was too mellow, it released liquid backbone to the mobile source. Therein style, it retained a unceasing meridian. A command in the cabin allowed the driver to blue-ribbon one of fivesome high:
The DS did not birth a labourer for lifting the car off the primer. Alternatively, the hydraulic scheme enabled bike changes with the aid of a uncomplicated adjustable stall.
Source and reserve of pressure
The primal function of the hydraulic organization was the gamey insistency source, which retained a pressing of ‘tween 130 and 150 bar in two accumulators. These accumulators were identical standardised in expression to the reprieve spheres. One was consecrated to the brakes, and the otc ran the over-the-counter hydraulic systems. Thusly in lawsuit of a hydraulic bankruptcy (a amazingly infrequent occurrent), the commencement indicant would be that the guidance became enceinte, followed by the gearbox not running; but afterward would the brakes die.
The pilot hydropneumatic arrangement exploited a oil (LHV or liquide hydraulique végénarrative) standardised thereto victimised in over-the-counter cars at the clock. Identical shortly, Citroën changed to victimisation a synthetical liquid (LHS or liquide hydraulique synthétique). Both of these had the disfavour that they are hygroscopic, as is the lawsuit with well-nigh bracken fluids. Neglect allows pee to participate the hydraulic components causation worsening and expensive upkeep exercise. The difficultness with hygroscopic hydraulic fluent was exacerbated in the DS/ID due to the uttermost hike and collapse the mobile stratum in the source, which went from near total to about hollow when the hiatus “got up” and the 6 accumulators in the scheme filled with liquid. With every “aspiration” of sassy moisture- (and dust-) oppressed air, the smooth engrossed more weewee. In Venerable 1967, Citroën introduced a new mineral oil-based mobile LHM, or liquide hydraulique minérattling. This fluent was practically less strong-growing on the organization and it cadaver engaged to the represent day.
Shortly illegal in the Joined States (US federal law requires motive fomite bracken runny to be red – an elision had to be given to Citroën), LHM has since been adoptive by manufacturers alike Rolls-Royce, Panther, BMW, and Audi nether unlike labels, comparable “Tally,” “Pentosin,” and others.
LHM needed wholly unlike materials for the seals. Victimization either liquid in the faulty scheme would wholly demolish the hydraulic seals selfsame cursorily. To assistant debar this job, Citroën added a hopeful commons dye to the LHM mobile and likewise multicolor all hydraulic elements brilliant commons. The other LHS parts were multi-coloured melanize.
Respective unlike hydraulic pumps were victimized. The DS victimized a seven-cylinder axile plunger ticker compulsive off two belts and delivering 175 bar of insistence. The ID19, with its simpler hydraulic arrangement, had a unity cylinder ticker.
Gearbox and clutch
The mechanical aspects of the gearbox and clutches were entirely established and the like elements were victimized in the ID 19.
The paraphernalia commute restraint consisted of:
Impact on Citroën brand development
The 1955 DS in one virgule cemented the Citroën marque as an self-propelled pioneer. In fact, the DS caused such a immense sentience that Citroën was direful hereafter models would not be bluff plenty. Differently variations on the really canonic 2 cylinder saving car Citroën 2CV, ilk the Citroën Ami, no new models were introduced from 1955 to 1970.
The DS was a heavy, expensive administrator car and a downwards steel annex was attempted, but without solution. Passim the tardy Fifties and Sixties Citroën highly-developed many new vehicles for the real gravid commercialise segments betwixt the 2CV and the DS, engaged by vehicles ilk the Peugeot 403, Renault 16 and Fording Cortina. None made it to yield. Either they had uneconomical figure costs, or were average “me too” cars, not capable the companionship’s mellow touchstone of initiation. Because Citroën was owned by Michelin as a kinda lab, such experiment was potential. Citroën ultimately did inclose the cagey Citroën GS in 1970, which sold a striking 2.5 gazillion units.
DS in the US
Piece the DS was a hit in Europe, it seemed kinda odd in the Joined States. Seemingly a luxuriant car, it did not let the introductory features that buyers of that era expected to get on such a fomite – amply robotic infection, air conditioning, index windows and a jolly hefty locomotive. The DS terms period was standardized to the coeval Cadillac luxuriousness car. Too, masses at the sentence precious alone the newest models, which changed yearly, same style, yet the DS appeared mistily differential of the 1950 Hudson Hornet diminution invention.
Out-of-date US legislating likewise prohibited one of the car’s more forward-looking features, streamlined headlamps, now plebeian in US automobiles. Finally, 38,000 units were sold. The low twelvemonth of the sleek glaze the DS’ headlights on with impulsive lights off by the direction, was besides the beginning class these features were outlaw in the US.
The DS forever retained its sizing and conformation, with well obliterable, unstressed trunk panels, but sealed designing changes did pass.
A waggon adaptation was introduced in 1958. It was known by assorted names in dissimilar markets (Break France, Campaign and Familiale in the UK, Waggon in the US, and Citroën Australia victimised the price Campaign and Station-Wagon). It had a brand ceiling to documentation the stock ceiling single-foot.
In September 1962, the DS was restyled with a more aerodynamically effective nozzle, meliorate airing and former improvements. It maintained the out-of-doors two headlight appearing, but was useable with an optional set of impulsive lights mounted on the strawman fenders. In 1965 a luxuriousness rise kit, the DS Pallas (afterward Greek goddess Pallas), was introduced. This included solace features such as meliorate racket detachment, leather upholstery and outside clipping embellishments.
In 1967, the DS and ID was again restyled. This rendering had a more sleek headlight designing, gift the car a notably shark-like show. This conception had four-spot headlights below a smoothen crank canopy, and the inside set swivelled with the wheel. This allowed the driver to see ‘about’ turns, particularly worthful on straining roadstead compulsive at eminent hurrying at dark.
Withal, this have was not allowed in the US at the sentence (see Humanity Assembly for Harmonisation of Fomite Regulations), so a variant with quartet open headlights that did not pivot was made for the US mart.
The wagon variation, the Jailbreak (called the ID Campaign on the UK commercialize) and “Familiale”, was besides upgraded. The hydraulic liquid changed altogether markets (exclude the US) to the technically ranking LHM (Liquide Hydraulique Minérattle).
Rarest and well-nigh payable of all DS variants, a transmutable was offered from 1958 until 1973. The convertibles were reinforced in belittled serial by French carrossier Henri Chapron, for the Citroën mill. In summation, Chapron too produced a few putschés, non-works convertibles and limited sedans (DS Lorraine e.g.).
As with all French cars, the DS innovation was wedged by the tax hp arrangement, which efficaciously mandated real diminished engines.
Dissimilar the Grip Avant forerunner, thither was no top-of-range example with a herculean six cylinder locomotive. The DS was intentional approximately an air cooled matte six based on the innovation of the 2 cylinder locomotive of the 2CV, like to the centrifugal in the Porsche 9-11. Technological issues strained this theme to be scrapped.
So, for such a innovative car, the locomotive of the archetype DS 19 was too passe. It was derived from the locomotive of the 11CV Grip Avant (models 11B and 11C). It was an OHV four-cylinder locomotive with tercet chief bearings and dry liners, and a bore-hole of 78 mm and a diagonal of 100 mm, bighearted a volumetrical supplanting of 1911 cc. The cylinder drumhead had been reworked; the 11C had a reverse-flow roll cast-iron cylinder caput and generated 60 hp at 3800 rpm; by counterpoint, the DS 19 had an aluminum cross-flow header with hemispherical burning chambers and generated 75 hp at 4500 rpm. Aside from these details, thither was really footling departure ‘tween the engines: eve the locations of the cylinder caput studs were the like, so that it was potential to put the cylinder header of a DS on a Grip Avant locomotive and run it.
Care the Grip Avant, the DS had the gearbox mounted before of the locomotive, with the derivative in betwixt. So the DS is a rattling a mid locomotive figurehead rack cause car. It initially had a four-speed transmitting and clutches, operated by a hydraulic restrainer. To modify gears, the driver flicked a prize buns the wheel to the future place and eased-up on the gun. The hydraulic restrainer disengaged the clutches, booked the nominative cogwheel, and re-engaged the grip. Manual transmitting ascendancy was a lower-cost alternative. The subsequently and simpler ID19 likewise had the like gearbox and clench, manually operated. In the Seventies a five-speed manual and 3-speed fully-automatic were introduced, in accession to the pilot four-speed whole.
The DS and ID powerplants evolved passim its 20 yr yield living. The car was underpowered and faced incessant mechanical changes to encouragement the execution of the four-cylinder locomotive. The initial 1911 cc 3 briny posture locomotive (carried onwards from the Grip Avant) of the DS 19 was replaced in 1965 with the 1985 cc 5 presence motive of the DS 19a (called DS20 from September 1969).
The DS 21 was likewise introduced for modeling twelvemonth 1965. This was a 2175 cc, 5 principal comportment locomotive. This locomotive standard a material addition in might with the unveiling of Bosch electronic fire injectant for 1970, qualification the DS one of the outset mass-market cars to use electronic fire shot.
Finally, 1973 saw the foundation of the 2347 cc locomotive of the DS 23 in both carbureted and fire injected forms. The DS 23 with electronic fire shot was the well-nigh hefty product modeling, producing 141 hp.
IDs and their variants went done a like development, broadly lagging the DS by most one class. ID models ne’er standard the DS 23 locomotive or fire shot. The DS was offered with a issue of infection options, including the “Hydraulique” 4-speed semi-automatic, 4-speed and 5-speed manuals and a 3-speed Borg-Warner full-automatic. The full-automatic transmissions were intended for the US mart, but as Citroën withdrew from the US in 1972, the yr of highest US sales, due to confining route rules, near robotlike DSs, organism the DS 23 EFI sedans with air conditioning, were sold in Australia.
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