1956 Citroen Ds 19

Citroen DS 19

The Citroën DS (alias Déesse, or Goddess, afterwards the pun initials in French) was an machine produced by the French producer Citroën ‘tween 1955 and 1975. Citroën sold near 1.5 jillion D-series during its 20 age of yield.The DS is long-familiar for its futurist, flowing eubstance pattern, and for its modern engineering (including its hydropneumatic self-leveling suspension).

The DS innovative the doable standards in damage of drive character, roadholding, manipulation, and braking in an auto. Self-propelling journalists of the metre ofttimes far-famed that competitors took decades to conform to the higher standards it set. The polish, sleek trunk lines gave the car a futurist show. Patch it looked selfsame strange in 1955, populace tastes look to birth caught up with the DS in the post-Ford Taurus/Audi 100 era.

Model history

Aft 18 age of growth secretly as the replacement to the august Grip Avant, the DS 19 was introduced on October 5, 1955 at the Paris Drive Prove. The car’s appearing and modern technology captured the imaging of the world and the machine diligence most all-night. 743 orders were interpreted in the get-go Fifteen of the establish, and orders for the offset day totalled 12,000.

Far from beingness scarce a absorbing engineering in lookup of a role, present-day journalists were burbling in noting how the DS dramatically pushed the gasbag in the drive vs. manipulation compromise potential in a drive fomite.

1956 Citroen Ds 19

The highschool terms tag, yet, damage ecumenical sales in a commonwealth distillery convalescent from Humanity War II 10 days before, and a submodel, the ID (another pun: in French, Idée, or Estimation), was introduced in 1957 to appealingness to more cost-conscious buyers. The ID divided the like personify with the DS, but had more traditional features below the goon. It had no ability steerage (though this was added as an choice late), and rather of the hydraulicly controlled manual infection and clutches, it had a ceremonious clasp and infection. Interestingly, the outset modelling serial was called 11D, a unclutter monitor of the finale modeling of the Grip Avant, the 11C. A waggon discrepancy, the ID Breaking, was introduced in 1958.

1956 Citroen DS 19

External of France, the car’s root and cosmopolite pattern appealed to non-conformists. A Joined States ad summarised this marketing head: “It takes a limited soul to campaign a particular car”.

1956 Citroen Ds 19

Passim its exemplar life-time, the DS managed to persist forward of its meter. It featured mightiness disk brakes, a hydropneumatic abatement including an reflex levelling organisation and varying land headroom, exponent direction and a semi-automatic transmittance. A fibreglass cap rock-bottom angle transportation. Inboard strawman brakes (too as an free-lance abeyance) rock-bottom unsprung weighting. Unlike strawman and backside running widths and wear sizes rock-bottom the understeer distinctive of front-engined and front-wheel ride cars.

Disdain the instead easy quickening afforded by its belittled four-cylinder locomotive, the DS was successful in motorsports care rally, where sustained speeds on hapless surfaces are predominate.

The DS came in one-third in the 1999 Car of the Hundred challenger, recognizing the the humans’s nearly influential car designs. Victor and secondment office went to the Fording Manakin T and the Miniskirt. It situated one-fifth on Auto Cartridge “100 Coolest Cars” itemization in 2005.

Account leave recollect the DS for many reasons, including the fact it was the get-go product car with battlefront disk brakes.

Technical innovations

Hydraulic system

1956 Citroen Ds 19

The hydraulic scheme of the DS 19 was a gyration. Antecedently hydraulics had been qualified to use in brakes and exponent direction; the DS victimized them for the dangling, clutches and transmitting. The posterior ID19 had manual direction and a simplified powerfulness braking organisation.


At a sentence when few rider vehicles had caught up with the four-wheeled freelance hanging of the Grip Avant, the diligence of the hydraulic organization to the car’s suspension to allow on-key self-levelling was a sensational movement. This coating – ‘hydropneumatic respite’ – was pioneered the class ahead on the ass of the top of reach Grip Avant 15CV-H.

At get-go it was much described as air/oil reprieve, since both elements played a key office.

Apiece bike was attached not to a leap, but to a hydraulic abeyance whole consisting of:

  • a empyrean of most 12 cm in diam containing pressurised n
  • a cylinder containing hydraulic runny screwed to the respite sector
  • a plunger indoors the cylinder machine-accessible by levers to the abatement itself
  • a muffler valve ‘tween the plunger and the heavens
  • A membrane in the heavens prevented the n from escaping. The gesticulate of the wheels translated to a movement of the plunger, which acted on the oil in the n soften and provided the springiness core. The muffler valve took office of the shock in schematic suspensions.

    The hydraulic cylinder was fed with hydraulic mobile from the briny pressing source via a tallness corrector, a valve controlled by the mid-position of the anti-roll bar attached to the axle. If the dangling was too low, the acme corrector introduced hard-hitting liquid. If it was too gamy, it released liquid rachis to the mobile source. Therein mode, it retained a unremitting meridian. A restraint in the cabin allowed the driver to take one of pentad high:

  • rule equitation tallness.
  • two slenderly higher equitation high, for pitiful terrain.
  • two uttermost positions for ever-changing wheels.
  • The DS did not get a labourer for lifting the car off the primer. Rather, the hydraulic arrangement enabled bicycle changes with the aid of a dim-witted adjustable stall.

    1956 Citroen Ds 19

    Source and reserve of pressure

    The exchange contribution of the hydraulic arrangement was the gamey pressing source, which well-kept a coerce of ‘tween 130 and 150 bar in two accumulators. These accumulators were selfsame standardised in structure to the abatement spheres. One was consecrated to the brakes, and the otc ran the otc hydraulic systems. Thence in vitrine of a hydraulic nonstarter (a amazingly infrequent occurrent), the low reading would be that the guidance became large, followed by the gearbox not operative; just after would the brakes go.

    Hydraulic fluid

    The pilot hydropneumatic organisation victimized a oil (LHV or liquide hydraulique végénarrative) like thereto victimised in over-the-counter cars at the clock. Selfsame presently, Citroën changed to victimization a semisynthetic fluent (LHS or liquide hydraulique synthétique). Both of these had the disfavour that they are hygroscopic, as is the vitrine with almost bracken fluids. Neglect allows weewee to accede the hydraulic components causation worsening and expensive alimony ferment. The trouble with hygroscopic hydraulic smooth was exacerbated in the DS/ID due to the utmost ascending and give the unstable stratum in the source, which went from virtually entire to about abandon when the dangling “got up” and the 6 accumulators in the arrangement filled with unstable. With every “aspiration” of impertinent moisture- (and dust-) ladle air, the smooth engrossed more weewee. In Venerable 1967, Citroën introduced a new mineral oil-based unstable LHM, or liquide hydraulique minérattling. This smooth was often less fast-growing on the scheme and it clay engaged to the confront day.

    Concisely illegal in the Joined States (US federal law requires drive fomite bracken runny to be red – an exclusion had to be given to Citroën), LHM has since been adoptive by manufacturers alike Rolls-Royce, Panther, BMW, and Audi below dissimilar labels, alike “Tally,” “Pentosin,” and others.

    LHM mandatory entirely unlike materials for the seals. Victimization either fluent in the wrong arrangement would wholly demolish the hydraulic seals really chop-chop. To helper avert this trouble, Citroën added a promising greens dye to the LHM runny and besides motley all hydraulic elements undimmed k. The quondam LHS parts were multi-colored nigrify.

    Various dissimilar hydraulic pumps were victimized. The DS exploited a seven-cylinder axile plunger heart impelled off two belts and delivering 175 bar of insistence. The ID19, with its simpler hydraulic organization, had a unity cylinder heart.

    Gearbox and clutch

    The mechanical aspects of the gearbox and batch were entirely schematic and the like elements were ill-used in the ID 19.

    The train variety ascendence consisted of:

  • Hydraulic train picker.
  • Hold ascendancy. This was the about complicated share. The velocity of involution of the hold was controlled by:
  • A motor governor, perception locomotive rpm and determined off the camshaft by a smash
  • The spot of the romance valve in the carburetor (i.e. the spot of the catalyst)
  • The bracken circle: when the bracken was pressed, the locomotive laze amphetamine dropped to a rpm under the clasp booking amphetamine, thusly preventing clash patch stopped-up in paraphernalia at dealings lights. When the bracken was released, the jobless velocity increased to the batch dragging speeding. The car would so “weirdie” often comparable reflexive transmitting cars. This drib in laze gun billet besides caused the car to bear more locomotive hale when the brakes were applied eve ahead the car slowed to the dead swiftness in train, preventing the locomotive from “pull” against the brakes.
  • Impact on Citroën brand development

    The 1955 DS in one virgule cemented the Citroën brand as an self-propelling trailblazer. In fact, the DS caused such a brobdingnagian esthesis that Citroën was dreadful succeeding models would not be bluff plenty. Differently variations on the selfsame canonic 2 cylinder thriftiness car Citroën 2CV, comparable the Citroën Ami, no new models were introduced from 1955 to 1970.

    The DS was a heavy, expensive administrator car and a downwards make prolongation was attempted, but without outcome. Passim the former Fifties and Sixties Citroën highly-developed many new vehicles for the real big mart segments betwixt the 2CV and the DS, engaged by vehicles ilk the Peugeot 403, Renault 16 and Crossing Cortina. None made it to yield. Either they had uneconomical chassis costs, or were average “me too” cars, not capable the companionship’s gamey stock of instauration. Because Citroën was owned by Michelin as a rather laboratory, such experiment was potential. Citroën last did inclose the ingenious Citroën GS in 1970, which sold a salient 2.5 billion units.

    DS in the US

    Patch the DS was a hit in Europe, it seemed kinda odd in the Joined States. Seemingly a voluptuary car, it did not deliver the canonical features that buyers of that era expected to obtain on such a fomite – full reflex transmittance, air conditioning, might windows and a somewhat muscular locomotive. The DS cost period was interchangeable to the coeval Cadillac sumptuousness car. Likewise, masses at the clock cherished sole the newest models, which changed yearly, similar style, yet the DS appeared mistily differential of the 1950 Hudson Hornet diminution excogitation.

    1956 Citroen Ds 19

    Superannuated US legislating likewise prohibited one of the car’s more sophisticated features, streamlined headlamps, now park in US automobiles. Finally, 38,000 units were sold. The commencement class of the sleek glaze the DS’ headlights on with impulsive lights off by the direction, was too the low twelvemonth these features were illegitimate in the US.

    Design variations

    The DS invariably well-kept its sizing and conformation, with easy obliterable, unstressed personify panels, but sealed figure changes did hap.

    A waggon interpretation was introduced in 1958. It was known by assorted names in unlike markets (Break France, Campaign and Familiale in the UK, Waggon in the US, and Citroën Australia victimised the footing Campaign and Station-Wagon). It had a sword cap to reenforcement the measure cap wheel.

    In September 1962, the DS was restyled with a more aerodynamically effective intrude, amend breathing and over-the-counter improvements. It maintained the afford two headlight show, but was usable with an optional set of impulsive lights mounted on the strawman fenders. In 1965 a sumptuousness elevate kit, the DS Pallas (aft Greek goddess Pallas), was introduced. This included consolation features such as meliorate dissonance insulant, leather upholstery and international shave embellishments.

    In 1967, the DS and ID was again restyled. This rendering had a more sleek headlight invention, bighearted the car a notably shark-like show. This conception had 4 headlights nether a smoothen crank canopy, and the intimate set swivelled with the wheel. This allowed the driver to see ‘roughly’ turns, specially worthful on overrefinement roadstead impelled at high-pitched upper at nighttime.

    Nevertheless, this sport was not allowed in the US at the metre (see Earth Assembly for Harmonisation of Fomite Regulations), so a reading with quartet open headlights that did not pivot was made for the US commercialize.

    The waggon version, the Breakage (called the ID Campaign on the UK mart) and “Familiale”, was likewise upgraded. The hydraulic smooth changed altogether markets (exclude the US) to the technically higher-ranking LHM (Liquide Hydraulique Minérattling).

    Rarest and nearly collectable of all DS variants, a exchangeable was offered from 1958 until 1973. The convertibles were reinforced in pocket-sized serial by French carrossier Henri Chapron, for the Citroën mill. In accession, Chapron too produced a few takeoverés, non-works convertibles and limited sedans (DS Lorraine e.g.).

    DS engines

    As with all French cars, the DS innovation was wedged by the tax hp organization, which efficaciously mandated rattling little engines.

    Different the Grip Avant forerunner, thither was no top-of-range framework with a brawny six cylinder locomotive. The DS was intentional approximately an air cooled matted six based on the innovation of the 2 cylinder locomotive of the 2CV, interchangeable to the centrifugal in the Porsche 9-11. Expert issues constrained this mind to be scrapped.

    Thusly, for such a bodoni car, the locomotive of the master DS 19 was likewise demode. It was derived from the locomotive of the 11CV Grip Avant (models 11B and 11C). It was an OHV four-cylinder locomotive with tercet independent bearings and dry liners, and a bore-hole of 78 mm and a diagonal of 100 mm, freehanded a volumetrical supplanting of 1911 cc. The cylinder caput had been reworked; the 11C had a reverse-flow mould press cylinder nous and generated 60 hp at 3800 rpm; by line, the DS 19 had an al cross-flow nous with hemispherical burning chambers and generated 75 hp at 4500 rpm. Isolated from these details, thither was selfsame niggling departure betwixt the engines: fifty-fifty the locations of the cylinder caput studs were the like, so that it was potential to put the cylinder header of a DS on a Grip Avant locomotive and run it.

    Care the Grip Avant, the DS had the gearbox mounted before of the locomotive, with the derivative in betwixt. Olibanum the DS is a truly a mid locomotive presence bicycle effort car. It initially had a four-speed transmittance and clasp, operated by a hydraulic comptroller. To alter gears, the driver flicked a prise butt the wheel to the following place and eased-up on the gas. The hydraulic comptroller disengaged the grasp, set-aside the nominative gearing, and re-engaged the clench. Manual transmittance ascendance was a lower-cost alternative. The afterward and simpler ID19 besides had the like gearbox and hold, manually operated. In the Seventies a five-speed manual and 3-speed fully-automatic were introduced, in add-on to the archetype four-speed whole.

    The DS and ID powerplants evolved end-to-end its 20 yr yield sprightliness. The car was underpowered and faced ceaseless mechanical changes to encourage the execution of the four-cylinder locomotive. The initial 1911 cc 3 primary posture locomotive (carried forrader from the Grip Avant) of the DS 19 was replaced in 1965 with the 1985 cc 5 aim motive of the DS 19a (called DS20 from September 1969).

    The DS 21 was too introduced for example yr 1965. This was a 2175 cc, 5 chief carriage locomotive. This locomotive standard a significant step-up in might with the launching of Bosch electronic fire injectant for 1970, devising the DS one of the outset mass-market cars to use electronic fire shot.

    Finally, 1973 saw the entry of the 2347 cc locomotive of the DS 23 in both carbureted and fire injected forms. The DS 23 with electronic fire injectant was the almost muscular output framework, producing 141 hp.

    IDs and their variants went done a standardised phylogeny, mostly lagging the DS by astir one twelvemonth. ID models ne’er standard the DS 23 locomotive or fire injectant. The DS was offered with a routine of transmitting options, including the “Hydraulique” 4-speed semi-automatic, 4-speed and 5-speed manuals and a 3-speed Borg-Warner full-automatic. The full-automatic transmissions were intended for the US marketplace, but as Citroën withdrew from the US in 1972, the class of highest US sales, due to narrowing route rules, near reflex DSs, existence the DS 23 EFI sedans with air conditioning, were sold in Australia.

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